BRUXISM in Children
Derived from the Greek word “brychein,” bruxism means tooth grinding. The term was first introduced in 1931 when it was used to describe involuntary, excessive grinding, clenching, or rubbing of the teeth during nonfunctional movements of the masticatory system. More recently, it has been further defined as a diurnal (when it happens during the day) or nocturnal (when it happens at night) parafunctional activity. It refers to movements of the jaws that are outside of the normal functional activity of the teeth and jaws (eg, speaking, chewing, or swallowing).
Children are susceptible to habits conducted without consciousness, such as nail and cheek biting and non-nutritive sucking. In children, bruxing when awake, which manifests as clenching of the teeth, often occurs without any cognitive awareness, especially during stressful situations or intense concentration. When the child is made aware of the activity, the bruxism can be stopped or modified. On the other hand, sleep bruxism, which presents as grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, cannot be consciously stopped by the child. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders reclassified bruxism in 2005 as a sleep-related movement disorder, rather than its previous classification as a parasomnia, which is an undesirable movement occurring during sleep. This puts it in the same category as restless leg syndrome and sleep walking.
The prevalence of bruxism in children is difficult to determine because estimates are generally based on parental reporting or clinical finding of tooth wear. The occurrence of bruxism may be variable over time, so finding tooth wear is not necessarily indicative of current tooth grinding. The prevalence of bruxism in children varies greatly—from 7% to 88%.1 Children younger than 11 years are most affected with a reported prevalence of 14% to 20%.1 In healthy infants, sleep bruxism typically starts at about 1 year, soon after the eruption of the primary incisors. Bruxism appears in approximately 13% of 18- to 29- year-olds1 and then significantly decreases with age
Complete Article; http://www.dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com/ddhright.aspx?id=10444
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